When the way forward for manufacturing of micro-scale natural electronics, Mohammad Reza Abidian — affiliate professor of Biomedical Engineering on the College of Houston Cullen School of Engineering — sees their potential to be used in versatile electronics and bioelectronics, by way of multiphoton 3-D printers.
The most recent paper from his analysis group examines the potential of that know-how. “Multiphoton Lithography of Natural Semiconductor Gadgets for 3D Printing of Versatile Digital Circuits, Biosensors, and Bioelectronics” was printed on-line in Superior Supplies.
Over the previous few years, 3D printing of electronics have turn into a promising know-how as a result of their potential functions in rising fields corresponding to nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. Amongst 3D microfabrication applied sciences, multiphoton lithography (MPL) is taken into account the state-of-the-art amongst the microfabrication strategies with true 3D fabrication functionality, wonderful stage of spatial and temporal management, and the flexibility of photosensitive supplies principally composed of acrylate-based polymers/monomers or epoxy-based photoresists.
“On this paper we launched a brand new photosensitive resin doped with an natural semiconductor materials (OS) to manufacture extremely conductive 3D microstructures with high-quality structural options by way of MPL course of,” Abidian stated.
They confirmed that the fabrication course of may very well be carried out on glass and versatile substrate poly(dimethylsilosane). They demonstrated that loading as little as 0.5 wt% OS into the resin remarkably elevated electrical conductivity of printed natural semiconductor composite polymer over 10 orders of magnitude.
“The wonderful electrical conductivity may be attributed to presence of OS within the cross-linked polymer chains, offering each ionic and digital conduction pathways alongside the polymer chains,” Abidian stated.
To show the potential digital functions primarily based on the OS composite resin, his workforce fabricated varied microelectronic gadgets, together with micro-printed circuit board, which contains varied electrical parts, and an array of microcapacitors.
Three dimensional bioprinting of natural semiconductor microdevices primarily based on MPL has potential in biomedical functions together with tissue engineering, bioelectronics and biosensors. Abidian’s workforce efficiently integrated bioactive molecules corresponding to laminin and glucose oxidase into the OS composite microstructures (OSCMs). To verify that the bioactivity of laminin was retained all through the whole MPL course of, major mouse endothelial cells had been cultured on OS composite microstructures. Cells seeded on laminin integrated OSCMs displayed proof of adherence to substrate, proliferation, and enhanced survival.
“We additionally assessed the biocompatibility of the OS composite constructions by culturing lymphocytes, specifically splenic T-cells and B-cells, on the fabricated surfaces and in contrast them with management surfaces. After seven days of tradition, OS composite polymers didn’t induce cell mortality with roughly 94 % cell viability in comparison with the management surfaces,” Abidian stated. “As well as, the potential impact of OS composite polymers on cell activation was additionally studied. After seven days of tradition, there was no important distinction within the expression of activation markers on the lymphocytes between OS composite constructions and management surfaces.”
Lastly, Abidian proposed a maskless technique primarily based on MPL for fabrication of bioelectronics and biosensors. They fabricated a glucose biosensor much like Michigan type neural electrodes. Glucose oxidase, an enzyme for the particular recognition of glucose, was encapsulated inside the solidified OS composite microelectrodes by way of the MPL course of. The biosensor supplied a extremely delicate glucose sensing platform with almost 10-fold greater sensitivity in comparison with earlier glucose biosensors. As well as, this biosensor exhibited wonderful specificity and excessive reproducibility.
“We anticipate that the introduced MPL-compatible OS composite resins will pave the trail in the direction of manufacturing of sentimental, bioactive, and conductive microstructures for varied functions within the rising fields of versatile bioelectronics, biosensors, nanoelectronics, organ-on-chips, and immune cell therapies.” Abidian stated
Co-authors on the paper embrace former graduate college students Omid Dadras-Toussi and Milad Khorrami; and postdoctoral researcher Anto Sam Crosslee Louis Sam Titus. Abidian praised the work of his college students on this analysis and famous that Dadras-Toussi could be beginning a brand new job with Medtronic, an S&P 100 firm with $30 billion in yearly income, this month.
Sheereen Majd, affiliate professor of Biomedical Engineering, and Chandra Mohan, Hugh Roy and Lillie Cranz Cullen Endowed Professor of Biomedical Engineering at UH Cullen School of Engineering are additionally co-authors. Abidian stated his colleagues had been important collaborators for the analysis.