In a current examine revealed within the Journal of Infection and Public Health, researchers carried out a retrospective examine of all coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19) instances from a single hospital within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) between December 25, 2021, and February 30, 2022.
They described the epidemiology and medical traits of COVID-19 sufferers through the third pandemic wave when the extreme acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant was predominant.
The KSA had managed to regulate the unfold of SARS-CoV-2 inside the nation to a big extent by means of widespread vaccination applications. With the emergence of Omicron, the every day reported instances within the KSA surged to 4000/day from lower than 100/day within the previous months.
Though in comparison with Delta, Omicron prompted much less extreme infections, fewer hospitalizations, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and much-reduced mortality, there was an pressing want to judge its results within the normal inhabitants.
Concerning the examine
Within the current examine, researchers reviewed all COVID-19 instances from a single medical heart in KSA and gathered information to check the traits of sufferers through the Omicron wave. This information encompassed their demographics, medical signs, pre-existing medical situations, COVID-19 vaccination standing, date of final vaccination, and SARS-CoV-2 an infection. Additional, the researchers assessed whether or not or not these COVID-19 sufferers required hospital or ICU admission.
For statistical analyses, they first summarized information as numbers and percentages. They in contrast categorical information utilizing a chi-square check, together with admitted and non-admitted sufferers and gender-based information with different covariates.
A binary logistic regression evaluation helped the researchers mannequin a number of covariates with admission standing and gender. Moreover, they constructed a Boxplot of the cycle threshold (CT) values of SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain response (RT-PCR) with COVID-19 vaccine doses. Lastly, the crew used Kaplan-Meier curve evaluation to find out the times from the final COVID-19 vaccine to the next incidence of SARS-CoV-2 an infection.
The ultimate examine evaluation lined 400 Omicron-infected sufferers, of which 55% had been males, and the remaining had been females. The most typical pre-existing medical situations had been diabetes mellitus and hypertension, 10.5% and seven.5%. Essentially the most placing characteristic of the Omicron wave was the considerably decrease hospitalization price (solely 14%) in comparison with prior pandemic waves. Solely 3.5% and a pair of% of 400 Omicron-infected sufferers required ICU admission and mechanical air flow, respectively.
Additional, it was inversely associated to the variety of COVID-19 vaccine doses. In a binary logistic evaluation, whereas hospital admission was considerably related to headache and sore throat, fever and diabetes mellitus had been inversely related to hospital admission.
The most typical signs noticed within the examine of sufferers contaminated with Omicron had been sore throat, cough, fever, and headache, noticed in 39.8%, 39.5%, 33%, and 30.5% of sufferers, respectively. The medical presentation and comorbidities didn’t change with the affected person’s gender through the Omicron-driven pandemic wave. Nonetheless, the incidence of sore throat in a binary logistic regression confirmed the next price amongst males with an OR of two.014.
Whatever the vaccination standing, extra Omicron-infected than Delta-infected sufferers skilled sore throats (70.5% vs. 60.8%). Intriguingly, these sufferers additionally had odynophagia; nevertheless, anosmia, a pathognomonic symptom of earlier SARS-CoV-2 variants, was markedly low in Omicron-infected sufferers.
Throughout female and male sufferers, the typical time to SARS-CoV-2 an infection from the final vaccination was 131.60 days. The typical CT worth was larger within the recipients of two or three vaccine doses than the recipient of 1 dose of the COVID-19 vaccine; nevertheless, this distinction didn’t attain a statistical distinction.
The noticed variations throughout completely different COVID-19 pandemic waves possible mirrored variations within the examine inhabitants or the interplay between the elements and the vaccination.
The present examine remarkably depicted the epidemiological and medical traits of COVID-19 sufferers through the Omicron wave in KSA. That they had a milder illness and required much less hospitalization and fewer ICU admission. Since most sufferers had obtained COVID-19 vaccines, it confirmed the significance of COVID-19 vaccination in limiting illness severity and reducing the necessity for hospitalization.
- Salma AlBahrani, Ali AlBarrak, TariqAl-Musawi, Nawal Ali AlGubaisi, MaramAlmalki, Fatimah H.Hakami, Turki Alghamdi, Zena AlBeiuruti, Sausan Alkhrashi, Meshael Almershad, Samira Alzahrani, Amerah AlQuraiaan, Helmy AlTourifi, Arulanantham Zechariah Jebakumar, Jaffar A.Al-Tawfiq. (2022). COVID-19 vaccine had a major constructive affect on sufferers with SARS-COV-2 through the third (Omicron) wave in Saudi Arabia. Journal of An infection and Public Well being. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2022.09.005 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/research/coronavirus/publication/36215800