Genetic background has an impact on the metabolism of important fatty acids

Genetic background has an impact on the metabolism of the important polyunsaturated fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid, a latest examine from the College of Jap Finland reveals.

Supplementing the weight-reduction plan with camelina oil wealthy in alpha-linolenic acid, or with sunflower oil wealthy in linoleic acid altered the concentrations of the metabolites of those fatty acids within the physique; nonetheless, the modifications had been depending on the examine contributors’ FADS1 genotype. The examine was performed amongst carriers of two completely different FADS1 genotypes.

“Camelina oil elevated the plasma focus of eicosapentaenoic acid produced from alpha-linolenic acid in solely one of many genotypes studied,” says Researcher and first creator Topi Meuronen of the College of Jap Finland.

Each weight-reduction plan and genes have been discovered to affect the concentrations of various fatty acids within the physique. The FADS1 gene regulates the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the FADS1 genotype has beforehand been related to glucose and lipid metabolism issues, and with the chance of kind 2 diabetes.

Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid are important fatty acids not produced by the human physique, i.e., they have to be obtained from meals. Linoleic acid is the most typical dietary fatty acid within the omega-6 household. Alpha-linolenic acid, however, belongs to the household of omega-3 fatty acids. Various concentrations of each are present in vegetable oils, seeds and nuts. Of vegetable oils, sunflower oil is especially wealthy in linoleic acid. Camelina oil and linseed oils, however, are wealthy in alpha-linolenic acid.

Excessive consumption and plasma focus of linoleic acid has been related to, e.g., a decrease threat of kind 2 diabetes and heart problems, however the affiliation of alpha-linolenic acid stays unclear. As metabolites of linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, the physique produces lipid mediators that are vital, however a few of them additionally pro-inflammatory.

Within the new examine, the researchers explored whether or not rs174550 level mutations within the FADS1 gene modify the impact of alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid on the composition of fatty acids in plasma, and the concentrations of lipid mediators derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. Carriers of two completely different FADS1 genotypes had been recruited from amongst males collaborating within the Metabolic Syndrome in Males examine, METSIM. They supplemented their weight-reduction plan with 30-50 ml of camelina oil or sunflower oil every day for eight weeks.

“Our analysis design, i.e., recruiting topics on the premise of their genetic background, has confirmed efficient in investigating the interactions between weight-reduction plan and genes,” Postdoctoral Researcher Maria Lankinen of the College of Jap Finland says.

The physique can produce eicosapentaenoic acid from alpha-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid from linoleic acid, for instance. These lengthy chain fatty acids, and lipid mediators produced from them, are concerned in lots of capabilities within the physique, resembling inflammatory response and vascular operate.

The examine confirmed that the FADS1 genotype performs a significant position in, for instance, how effectively important fatty acids are transformed to arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. The FADS1 genotype additionally affected the concentrations of metabolites derived from them.

The usage of camelina oil wealthy in alpha-linolenic acid elevated the focus of eicosapentaenoic acid and lipid mediators derived from it in solely one of many genotypes studied. In distinction, using sunflower oil wealthy in linoleic acid didn’t enhance the focus of arachidonic acid or its derived lipid mediators in carriers of both genotype.

“The modifications we noticed within the plasma focus of eicosapentaenoic acid had been on the identical stage as in our earlier examine, the place individuals ate fatty fish containing eicosapentaenoic acid. Nevertheless, an fascinating commentary is that when camelina oil was used, the modifications occurred solely in one of many genotypes studied,” says Meuronen.

In accordance with the researchers, the outcomes give trigger to contemplate whether or not it’s attainable to provide more and more individualised pointers on the consumption of alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid. Nevertheless, additional analysis is required.

The examine was carried out in collaboration with Karolinska Institutet, and the findings had been printed in Molecular Vitamin and Meals Analysis.



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