Information Scan for Feb 10, 2022

Earlier COVID an infection might confer 56% safety towards reinfection

A research in Qatar estimates that earlier COVID-19 an infection imparts 56% safety towards future symptomatic an infection brought on by the extremely transmissible Omicron variant, down from about 90% for different SARS-CoV-2 strains.

The research, revealed yesterday within the New England Journal of Medication (NEJM), was led by researchers at Weill Cornell Medication–Qatar in Doha.

The crew extracted knowledge on COVID-19 testing, vaccination, medical infections, outcomes, and demographics from nationwide databases amid the Omicron surge.

The median interval between preliminary COVID-19 an infection and polymerase chain response (PCR) testing of 5,696 optimistic instances and 10,673 detrimental controls was 279 days for evaluation of the Alpha variant, 285 days for the Beta variant, 254 days for the Delta variant, and 314 days for Omicron.

Estimated effectiveness of a earlier an infection in stopping reinfection was 90.2% towards Alpha, 85.7% towards Beta, 92.0% towards Delta, and 56.0% towards Omicron. Sensitivity analyses that excluded vaccinated sufferers confirmed the outcomes.

Amongst reinfected sufferers, one affected person with the Alpha variant grew to become severely ailing, as did two every with Beta and Omicron, however no sufferers with Delta did so. No reinfection was crucial or deadly. Estimated effectiveness towards extreme, crucial, or deadly COVID-19 was 69.4% for Alpha, 88.0% for Beta, 100% with Delta, and 87.8% with Omicron.

“We discovered that the effectiveness of earlier an infection in stopping reinfection with the alpha, beta, and delta variants of SARS-CoV-2 was sturdy (at roughly 90%), findings that confirmed earlier estimates,” the researchers concluded.

“Such safety towards reinfection with the omicron variant was decrease (roughly 60%) however nonetheless appreciable,” they added. “As well as, the safety of earlier an infection towards hospitalization or loss of life brought on by reinfection seemed to be sturdy, no matter variant.”
Feb 9 NEJM research letter

Examine: Third of US adults develop new signs post-COVID-19

Thirty-two % of older adults who had been identified as having COVID-19 in 2020 developed a brand new symptom within the months following an infection that required them to hunt extra medical care, in accordance with a research yesterday in BMJ.

The observational research was based mostly on US medical health insurance plan information of 133,366 people aged 65 or older in 2020 who had been identified with COVID-19 earlier than Apr 1, 2020. The cohort was matched and in comparison with adults from 2020 and 2019.

In line with the authors, solely 21% of non-COVID older adults from 2020 sought medical care throughout the identical interval, in comparison with 32% of adults with COVID-19; all medical care after 21 days of acute an infection was included within the research.

Respiratory failure (threat distinction 7.55, 95% confidence interval 7.18 to eight.01), fatigue (5.66, 5.03 to six.27), hypertension (4.43, 2.27 to six.37), reminiscence difficulties (2.63, 2.23 to three.13), kidney harm (2.59, 2.03 to three.12), psychological well being diagnoses (2.50, 2.04 to three.04), hypercoagulability (1.47,1.2 to 1.73), and cardiac rhythm issues (2.19, 1.76 to 2.57) had the best threat variations in contrast with each the 2020 and 2019 comparability teams, the authors mentioned.

Males, adults over 75, and Black COVID-19 sufferers had been on the higher threat for growing new sequelae within the months following COVID-19 an infection.

“These findings additional spotlight the big selection of essential sequelae after acute an infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus,” the authors concluded. “Understanding the magnitude of threat for crucial medical sequelae would possibly improve their prognosis and the administration of people with sequelae after acute SARS-CoV-2 an infection.”
Feb 9 BMJ study

Launch of first human trial of Nipah virus vaccine introduced

Public Well being Vaccines (PHV), based mostly in Massachusetts, yesterday introduced the launch of a section 1 medical trial for its Nipah virus vaccine, the primary of its variety to be examined in individuals.

The vaccine was developed by scientists on the Nationwide Institute of Allergy and Infectious Illnesses, which licensed the product to PHV. The vaccine’s improvement has been supported by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Improvements (CEPI), which in 2017 flagged Nipah virus as one among 4 ailments that has the aptitude to set off a significant world epidemic.

The bat-borne virus can unfold to each people and livestock and might unfold person-to-person. It’s listed as a precedence virus by the World Well being Group and as a class C bioterrorism agent by the US Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention (CDC).

PHV’s vaccine is a single-dose stay, attenuated, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus that expresses each the Nipah virus glycoprotein and the Ebola virus glycoprotein, which is required for receptor-based viral entry.

The section 1 trial will assess security, tolerability, and immunogenicity of three dose ranges in 60 wholesome adults in america. Pending favorable outcomes, the corporate mentioned in a information launch that it’ll launch a section 2 trial this 12 months in a rustic the place the illness is endemic.
Feb 9 PHV press release

CDC: Latest US H5N1 avian flu detections pose low menace to individuals

Within the wake of current extremely pathogenic H5N1 avian flu detections in US waterfowl and the primary associated outbreak in poultry, the CDC mentioned yesterday that the menace to the general public stays low, however individuals who have higher publicity might have a heightened threat.

Latest sporadic H5 infections in individuals have been reported from overseas, together with one in January in the UK in a affected person who had shut contact with poultry. Related sporadic infections in america ensuing from shut contact with wild birds or poultry would not be shocking and would not change its threat evaluation, the CDC added. Human-to-human unfold of avian flu viruses is uncommon and hasn’t led to sustained transmission.

The CDC mentioned it has an present candidate H5 vaccine virus that’s almost similar to the virus discovered not too long ago in US wild hen samples, which might be used to make a vaccine for people, if wanted. It added that sequencing additionally means that the virus can be vulnerable to present antiviral drugs used to deal with flu.
Feb 9 CDC statement
Feb 9 CIDRAP Information story “H5N1 avian flu turns up in US poultry on Indiana turkey farm

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