Information Scan for Sep 23, 2022

Threat of neurologic issues in US veterans rose in yr after COVID

The danger of a variety of neurologic situations rose considerably within the yr after COVID-19 an infection amongst a gaggle of US veterans—no matter whether or not they had required hospitalization, in response to a examine printed yesterday in Nature Drugs.

Researchers on the Veterans Affairs St. Louis Healthcare System and Washington College used federal knowledge to estimate the chance and incidence of recent neurologic issues in 154,068 COVID-19 survivors, 5,638,795 modern controls, and 5,859,621 prepandemic controls.

Most individuals had been White males, with a median age of 62 years. Most had been unvaccinated as a result of the examine interval, March 2020 to January 2021, predated huge vaccine availability. It additionally preceded the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants.

The researchers discovered a 42% elevated danger of any neurologic situation, resembling ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke (50% enhance), cognitive and reminiscence issues (77%), epilepsy (80%), headache (35%), motion issues (42%), and psychological sickness (43%).

COVID-19 sufferers additionally had 2 extra instances Alzheimer’s illness per 1,000 folks than controls. “It is unlikely that somebody who has had COVID-19 will simply get Alzheimer’s out of the blue,” senior writer Ziyad Al-Aly, MD, mentioned in a Washington College press launch. “However what we suspect is occurring is that individuals who have a predisposition to Alzheimer’s could also be pushed over the sting by COVID, which means they’re on a sooner observe to develop the illness. It is uncommon however regarding.”

Al-Aly mentioned neurologic issues are creating in beforehand wholesome COVID-19 sufferers and people with delicate infections. “It would not matter in case you are younger or outdated, feminine or male, or what your race is,” he mentioned. “It would not matter should you smoked or not, or should you had different unhealthy habits or situations.”

Some neurologic situations persist, whereas others resolve, in unknown proportions, Al-Aly famous. “Given the colossal scale of the pandemic, assembly these challenges requires pressing and coordinated—however, to this point, absent—world, nationwide and regional response methods,” he mentioned.
Sep 22 Nat Med study
Sep 22 Washington College
press release

COVID-like virus in bats proof against SARS-CoV-2 antibodies

A sarbecovirus present in Russian bats evades SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in individuals who have been vaccinated in opposition to COVID-19, in response to a examine yesterday in PLOS Pathogens.

The virus, Khosta-2, belongs to the identical class of coronaviruses because the virus that causes COVID-19. It was recognized in bats sampled close to Sochi Nationwide Park in October 2020.

Researchers on the College of Washington, who carried out the examine, mentioned Khosta-2 would seemingly be capable of infect people, based mostly on experiments utilizing human cells from folks vaccinated in opposition to SARS-CoV-2.

To conduct the examine, the authors used sera from six vaccinated folks (three Pfizer and three Moderna), 4 uninfected donors, and three vaccinated people with breakthrough infections by January of 2022. The authors contaminated the sera with Khosta-2 cells, and the virus was capable of evade all antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. The virus was additionally capable of evade monoclonal antibodies to SARS-CoV-2.

The first mechanism of evasion was Khosta-2’s spike protein, which hooked up to a receptor protein, referred to as angiotensin changing enzyme 2 (ACE2.) The authors of the examine mentioned this could compel vaccine builders to think about making broader vaccines.

“Our analysis additional demonstrates that sarbecoviruses circulating in wildlife exterior of Asia—seven in locations like western Russia the place the Khosta-2 virus was discovered—additionally pose a menace to world well being and ongoing vaccine campaigns in opposition to SARS-CoV-2,” mentioned Michael Letko, PhD a virologist and corresponding writer of the examine, in a College of Washington press launch.
Sep 22 PLoS Pathog study
Sep 22 College of Washington press release

H1N2v flu infects Georgia swine handler and fairgoer

The US Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention (CDC) immediately reported one other variant H1N2 (H1N2v) flu an infection, this time in a Georgia baby. Like a lot of the different comparable instances, the kid had contact with pigs and had attended agricultural gala’s earlier than signs started.

Investigators discovered that the affected person was not hospitalized and has since recovered. No respiratory sicknesses had occurred in any family contacts, and no person-to-person H1N2v transmission was reported.

The sickness raises the season’s variety of variant flu infections to eight from six states. Six concerned H1N2v, and two had been linked to H3N2v. In August, the CDC issued a well being advisory that urged healthcare suppliers to observe for variant flu infections and it mentioned it anticipated extra instances to floor in the course of the ongoing agricultural truthful season.
Sep 23 CDC FluView report

WHO specialists advise 1 swap for subsequent Southern Hemisphere flu vaccine

The World Well being Group (WHO) flu pressure choice advisory group immediately introduced the advisable strains for the Southern Hemisphere’s 2023 flu season, which swaps out the H1N1 pressure for each the egg- and cell-based vaccine variations.

For the upcoming yr, the group advisable switching a virus just like influenza A/Sydney/5/2021. The pressure is totally different than the H1N1 strains included within the present Northern Hemisphere vaccines, that are A/Victoria/2570/2019 for egg-based vaccines and A/Wisconsin/588/2019 for cell-culture or recombinant vaccines.

In an accompanying Q and A, the WHO mentioned flu virus detections, apart from the influenza B Yamagata lineage, this yr have returned to pre-COVID ranges in lots of international locations within the Southern Hemisphere, which offered the advisory group with sufficient viruses to assist up to date vaccine pressure suggestions.
Sep 23 WHO recommendations
Sep 23 WHO Q and A


Six international locations report new polio instances this week

In keeping with the most recent replace from the International Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), six international locations have new polio instances this week.

Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Mozambique all have new wild poliovirus sort 1 instances. That is Afghanistan’s second case in 2022; final yr the nation reported 4 instances. In Pakistan, 2 polio instances had been recorded, bringing the 2022 complete to 19. In Mozambique, intensified surveillance has tracked 1 new polio case, bringing the yearly complete to six in that nation.

Benin and the Democratic Republic of the Congo reported instances of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus sort 2 (cVDPV2). Benin has 2 instances, with 6 complete reported this yr. The DRC has 1 case, however its 2022 complete is 111, up from 28 instances in 2021.

Malawi has two circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus sort 1 (cVDPV1) instances. These are the primary reported within the nation; final yr one wild-type case was reported.
Sep 21 GPEI update



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