Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals dynamic immune panorama in the course of the early phases of bubonic plague

This research is led by Dr. Ruifu Yang, Dr. Zongmin Du (State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology) and Dr. Fan Bai (Biomedical Pioneering Innovation Middle, College of Life Sciences, Peking College).

Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis), the causative agent of plague, has prompted thousands and thousands of deaths in three worldwide pandemics in historical past. Plague is predominately a flea-borne zoonotic illness. Whereas solely sporadic human plague outbreaks happen all over the world every year, the specter of plague to people and society shouldn’t be underestimated. Three subtypes of the illness are generally encountered within the clinic, specifically bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plagues. Bubonic plague is the main type and is characterised by enlarged purulent abscesses referred to as “buboes”, that are attributable to the large replication of Y. pestis after its speedy migration into the dLNs put up an infection. Related analysis on paralysis of the innate immune responses by Y. pestis in the course of the early phases of an infection is restricted, which has hindered our understanding of Y. pestis pathogenesis.

The researchers challenged mice with fluorescent-labeled Y. pestis by subcutaneous injection into the groins of mice to simulate the bubonic plague improvement. On this foundation, they took mouse inguinal lymph nodes on the 2nd hour and the 24th hour put up an infection (hpi) and analyzed the adjustments within the composition and standing of immune cells within the lymph nodes by stream cytometry and single-cell transcriptome sequencing. In contrast with the management group, genes of the irritation associated pathway have been considerably up-regulated within the lymph node cells of mice contaminated with Y. pestis in the course of the early stage of an infection. The researchers calculated the an infection choice index by the proportion of particular fluorescent labeled cells and located that Y. pestis are inclined to work together with the resident innate immune cells together with dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils, reasonably than adaptive immune cells.

Subsequently, the researchers additional sorted the resident innate immune cells and carried out the scRNA-seq. It was discovered that monocytes/macrophages confirmed M1 and M2 coupling activation in response to Y. pestis an infection, which might be the great outcomes of the activation of immune response mediated by host sample recognition receptors and the inhibition results of varied virulence components of Y. pestis.

As well as, the workforce additionally used the cell interplay evaluation software based mostly on CellPhoneDB to disclose the ligand receptor interplay of various cell sorts at completely different an infection time factors. It was discovered that the chemokine receptor CCR1 of neutrophils could also be concerned within the recruitment of neutrophils to lymph nodes put up an infection, and the CCR1 operate inhibition experiments have been carried out to confirm this conclusion.

Taken collectively, this research demonstrated the important cell sorts concerned and significant immune occasions occurred within the preliminary interactions between Y. pestis and the host on the single-cell transcription stage, which can be invaluable for understanding the event of bubonic plague and host immune response to Y. pestis on the early stage.

Journal reference:

Zhao, Y., et al. (2022) Single-cell transcriptomics of immune cells in lymph nodes reveals their composition and alterations in purposeful dynamics in the course of the early phases of bubonic plague. Science China Life Sciences. doi.org/10.1007/s11427-021-2119-5.

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