Symptomatology of lengthy COVID amongst youngsters under 14 years of age in Denmark

In a latest examine revealed in The Lancet Child and Adolescent Health, researchers investigated lengthy coronavirus illness (COVID) signs amongst extreme acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected Danish youngsters under 14 years of age.

Study: Long COVID symptoms in SARS-CoV-2-positive children aged 0–14 years and matched controls in Denmark (LongCOVIDKidsDK): a national, cross-sectional study. Image Credit: New Africa/Shutterstock
Examine: Long COVID symptoms in SARS-CoV-2-positive children aged 0–14 years and matched controls in Denmark (LongCOVIDKidsDK): a national, cross-sectional study. Picture Credit score: New Africa/Shutterstock


Youngsters are at an elevated danger of COVID 2019 (COVID-19) and post-COVID-19 (lengthy COVID) syndrome as a result of lack of licensed vaccines for kids, scare suggestions for pediatric vaccinations, low vaccine uptake, and social distancing difficulties amongst youngsters. Data of lengthy COVID amongst youngsters is important to information the identification and administration of COVID-19 and lengthy COVID by establishing multi-disciplinary lengthy COVID clinics.

In regards to the examine

Within the current cross-sectional and nationwide LongCOVIDKidsDK examine, researchers investigated the lengthy COVID symptomatology and its impression on high quality of life and absence from colleges and daycare services amongst SARS-CoV-2-infected youngsters aged <14 years in Denmark.

The examine comprised a 1:4 ratio of SARS-CoV-2 contaminated Danish youngsters (instances) with diagnoses confirmed by polymerase chain response (PCR) between 1 January 2020 and 12 July 2021 (instances) and age- and sex-matched controls. The instances had been recognized from the Danish COVID-19 database, and the controls had been recognized from the Danish Civil Registration System.

Proxy studies had been obtained by surveys stuffed out by moms/fathers/authorized guardians of youngsters under 14 years of age. They included the youngsters’s somatic signs inventory-24 (CSSI-24) and pediatric high quality of life stock (PedsQL) to acquire knowledge on little one well-being and general well being. Moreover, the survey varieties included ancillary questions on 23 lengthy COVID symptoms mostly reported within the lengthy COVID children’ fast survey carried out in January 2021.

The signs included chest ache, abdomen ache, fatigue, temper swings, headache, muscular or joint ache, focus and/or recall difficulties, urge for food loss, cough, dizziness, sore throat, rashes, fever, nausea, respiratory difficulties, palpitations, and excessive pallor. Different signs equivalent to pores and skin discoloration, sensitivity to mild, darkish circles below the eyes, and chapping of lips had been additionally included.

High quality of life was assessed for dimensions equivalent to emotional, bodily, social, emotional, and faculty or daycare functioning over the earlier month. Solely contributors with a recall interval of >2 months had been included within the examine. Information had been analyzed utilizing logistic regression and descriptive statistics. The variations had been thought-about clinically important if the Hedges’ g scores had been >0.2.  

The PubMed database was searched on 4 January 2021 for research investigating lengthy COVID amongst youngsters, leading to one paper together with a case description of 5 youngsters in Sweden. Additional, Google Scholar was searched, and one preprint examine from Italy, together with 75 lengthy COVID youngsters with out controls, was discovered.

Moreover, the web site talked about ongoing research which reported a excessive prevalence of long-lasting signs. Nonetheless, the research had been small, didn’t embody the youngest age teams, and lacked management teams and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 studies. Few research reported signs to be additionally extremely prevalent amongst controls. Furthermore, most research used a cutoff of 4 weeks for lengthy COVID, whereas the World Well being Group (WHO), in October 2021, outlined lengthy COVID to be lasting eight weeks.


A complete of 10997 responses (28.8%) and 33016 responses (22.4%) had been obtained for instances and controls, respectively, between 20 July 2021 and 15 September 2021. The imply age of the instances and controls was ten years and 10.6 years, respectively. Lengthy COVID was current in 31% (n = 427) youngsters aged 0 to three years, 26.5% (n=1505) youngsters aged 4 to 11 years, and 32·5% (n = 1077) of youngsters aged 12 to 14 years.

Essentially the most generally reported signs within the 0 to three years age group had been rashes, temper swings, abdomen aches, urge for food loss, and cough. Within the 4 to 11 years age group, focus difficulties, recall difficulties, rashes, and temper swings, had been most frequent. Within the 12 to 14 years age group, temper swings, focus difficulties, recall difficulties, and fatigue had been most continuously reported. With a rise in symptom period, the variety of youngsters with the signs diminished.

The percentages of >1 symptom lasting for >2 months had been larger amongst instances than controls for kids under three years of age [odds ratio (OR) 1.8], for these aged between 4 and 11 years (OR 1.2) and for these aged between 12 and 14 years (OR 1.2). Important variations had been famous within the CSSI-24 scores between the case group youngsters and the controls; nevertheless, the variations weren’t related clinically.

Contrastingly, variations with scientific relevance had been famous within the PedsQL scores for the emotional dimension amongst instances and controls for kids 4 to 11 years of age (scores had been 80 and 75 for instances and controls, respectively) and for kids aged 12 to 14 years (scores had been 90 and 85 for instances and controls, respectively). Likewise, PedsQL scores for the social dimension had been larger for instances (median scores had been 100 and 95 for instances and controls, respectively) for kids aged 12 to 14 years.

Amongst youngsters aged 13 months to 3 years, the variety of youngsters reported having ≥16 days of sick depart amongst instances (28.4%) was greater amongst instances in comparison with controls (18.4%). The corresponding proportions of youngsters reporting ≥16 days of absence from college or daycare had been additionally greater amongst instances (23.9%) in comparison with controls (14.1%).

Related outcomes had been noticed for kids aged 4 to 11 years (instances vs. controls 7.0% vs. 3.8% for ≥16 days sick depart; and 6.1% vs. 3.3% for ≥16 days of college or daycare absence). The corresponding proportions for the 12 to 14 years age group had been 9.0% vs 5.2%; and 6.5% vs 5.0%, respectively. The findings indicated that throughout all ages, instances reported extra sick depart and a larger variety of absent days for colleges or daycare services within the earlier 12 months in comparison with controls.


General, the examine findings confirmed that long-term signs had been extra prevalent amongst SARS-CoV-2-positive youngsters in comparison with controls aged under 14 years, with higher quality-of-life scores in relation to social and emotional functioning amongst instances of older age (4 to 11 years and 12 to 14 years). Nonetheless, the scientific variations on a inhabitants stage gave the impression to be small.

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